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Multiprocessors And Thread-level Parallelism Pdf Download

 
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MessagePosté le: Jeu 1 Sep - 01:44 (2016)    Sujet du message: Multiprocessors And Thread-level Parallelism Pdf Download Répondre en citant




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About,,This,,Presentation,,.,,Transcript,,and,,Presenter's,,Notes,,.,,memory),,multiplicity,,and,,replication,,(e.g.,,Title:,,Multiprocessors,,and,,Thread,,Level,,Parallelism,,Chapter,,4,,,Appendix,,E,,1Multiprocessors,,andThread,,Level,,ParallelismChapter,,4,,,Appendix,,ECS448,,2The,,Greed,,for,,SpeedTwo,,general,,approaches,,to,,making,,computers,,faster,,Faster,,uniprocessor,,All,,the,,techniques,,weve,,been,,looking,,at,,so,,far,,,plus,,others,,Nice,,since,,existing,,programs,,still,,work,,without,,changing,,them,,,except,,may,,need,,to,,be,,re-compiled,,with,,optimizations,,But,,diminishing,,returns,,with,,higher,,cost,,,as,,with,,Amdahls,,law,,Parallel,,processor,,Typically,,a,,collection,,general,,purpose,,uniprocessors,,today,,Large,,variation,,in,,memory,,access,,Required,,for,,high-end,,computer,,systems,,,e.g.,,Write,a,Comment,.,If,,data,,size,,the,,same,,,more,,inefficiencies,,in,,comm.,,Or,,,use,,,it,,,to,,,upload,,,your,,,own,,,PowerPoint,,,slides,,,so,,,you,,,can,,,share,,,them,,,with,,,your,,,teachers,,,,class,,,,students,,,,bosses,,,,employees,,,,customers,,,,potential,,,investors,,,or,,,the,,,world.,,,Cancel,OK,OK,Latest,Latest,Highest,Rated,Sort,by:,Latest,Highest,Rated,Page,of,.,

(You,,,can,,,choose,,,whether,,,to,,,allow,,,people,,,to,,,download,,,your,,,original,,,PowerPoint,,,presentations,,,and,,,photo,,,slideshows,,,for,,,a,,,fee,,,or,,,free,,,or,,,not,,,at,,,all.),,,Check,,,out,,,PowerShow.com,,,today,,,-,,,for,,,FREE..,,,MPI,15Comparison,of,Communication,MechanismsShared,Memory,Communication,Compatibility,with,well-understood,mechanisms,Ease,of,programming,,similar,to,uniprocessor,Low,overhead,for,communicating,small,items,Memory,mapping,in,hardware,,not,through,OS,Can,use,hardware-controlled,caching,to,reduce,frequency,of,remote,communication,Message,Passing,Communication,Hardware,can,be,simplified,in,some,cases,(well,see,coherent,caching,problems,in,a,minute),Communication,is,explicit,,forcing,programmers,to,pay,attention,and,optimize,(like,delayed,branch),Could,be,a,disadvantage,as,well!,16Should,Match,SW,to,HWMessage,Passing,model,on,shared,memory,architecture,Not,too,difficult,,could,send,data,by,copying,from,one,portion,of,the,address,space,to,another,Shared,Memory,on,Message,Passing,architecture,More,difficult,,without,hw,support,for,shared,memory,,the,OS,will,need,to,handle,things,High,overhead,for,sending,small,loads,and,stores,In,either,case,,the,resulting,system,will,be,slower,than,if,the,natural,mapping,from,SW,to,HW,is,used,17Communication,PerformanceCommunication,Bandwidth,Data,rate,we,can,transmit,data,Determined,by,communication,hardware,,mechanism,Slowest,node,for,a,data,path,can,determine,the,communication,bandwidth,Communication,Latency,Propagation,time,Latency,Sender,overhead,Time,of,Flight,Transmission,time,Receiver,overhead,Crucial,metric,to,performance!,Latency,Hiding,Methods,to,hide,latency,by,overlapping,operations,But,puts,additional,burden,on,software,system,and,the,programmer,in,many,cases,18Sample,Remote,Access,TimesLarge,latency,of,remote,access,can,significantly,impact,performance,Must,take,into,account,in,designing,algorithms!Load,time,for,shared,memory,,Reply,time,for,Message,Passing,19Performance,ExampleUnfortunately,,stringing,together,N,processors,with,performance,P,does,not,give,us,NP,as,the,new,performance,Factors,coming,into,play,Amount,of,parallelism,Conventional,factors,(TLB,miss,,cache,miss,,etc.),Shared,memory,overhead,Message,passing,overhead,Can,modify,uniprocessor,performance,model,CPUTime,IC,CPI,ParallelOverhead,CycleTime,20Communications,Cost,ExampleMultiprocessor,with,2000ns,to,handle,remote,memory,reference,All,other,references,hit,in,local,cache,Cycle,time,is,10ns,Base,CPI,is,1.0,How,much,faster,if,there,is,no,communication,vs.,But,,,aside,,,from,,,that,,,it's,,,free.,,,Equation,,,tells,,,us,,,how,,,to,,,balance,,,N,,,with,,,P,,,to,,,maintain,,,any,,,desired,,,amount,,,of,,,work,,,spent,,,in,,,computation,,,or,,,comm,,,28OS,,,WorkloadThere,,,is,,,also,,,overhead,,,with,,,the,,,OS,,,Just,,,as,,,we,,,have,,,with,,,a,,,uniprocessor,,,Example,,,on,,,eight-processor,,,system,,,running,,,make,,,Distribution,,,of,,,execution,,,time,,,Most,,,time,,,actually,,,spent,,,idle,,,waiting,,,on,,,the,,,disk!,,,Bottom,,,line,,,Application,,,behavior,,,a,,,key,,,factor,,,on,,,performance,,,with,,,a,,,parallel,,,machine,,,,thought,,,must,,,be,,,given,,,into,,,the,,,algorithm,,,and,,,performance-related,,,issues,,,.,,,Matrix,,multiplication,,lots,,of,,places,,for,,parallelism,,Computing,,a,,checksum,,less,,room,,for,,parallelism,,,lots,,of,,dependencies,,on,,previous,,calculations,,23Example,,ProblemsFast,,Fourier,,Transform,,Convert,,signal,,from,,time,,to,,frequency,,domain,,LU,,Kernel,,Solve,,linear,,algebra,,computations,,Barnes,,Ocean,,24BarnesGalaxy,,evolution,,,N-bodies,,with,,gravitational,,forces,,acting,,on,,them,,To,,reduce,,computational,,time,,required,,Gravity,,drops,,off,,as,,square,,of,,the,,distance,,Takes,,advantage,,of,,this,,property,,by,,treating,,far,,away,,bodies,,as,,a,,single,,point,,of,,combined,,mass,,at,,the,,centroid,,of,,the,,bodies,,,reducing,,N,,items,,to,,a,,single,,item,,Each,,node,,represents,,an,,octree,,,or,,eight,,children,,representing,,eight,,cubes,,in,,space,,Tree,,created,,to,,represent,,density,,of,,objects,,in,,space,,Challenges,,for,,parallelism,,Each,,processor,,given,,some,,subtree,,to,,work,,on,,Distribution,,of,,bodies,,is,,non-uniform,,and,,changes,,over,,time,,So,,we,,must,,re-partition,,work,,among,,the,,processes,,to,,maintain,,balance,,Requires,,communicating,,small,,amounts,,of,,data,,,implying,,shared-memory,,architecture,,may,,be,,most,,efficient,,25OceanOcean,,simulation,,,influence,,of,,eddy,,and,,currents,,on,,large-scale,,flow,,in,,the,,ocean,,To,,reduce,,computational,,time,,required,,Ocean,,is,,broken,,up,,into,,grids,,,more,,grids,,gives,,more,,resolution,,and,,increases,,accuracy,,but,,requires,,more,,processing,,Processing,,a,,grid,,cell,,requires,,data,,from,,neighboring,,cells,,Challenges,,for,,parallelism,,Each,,processor,,given,,a,,grid,,cell,,to,,work,,on,,Processors,,must,,communicate,,with,,their,,neighbors,,in,,a,,synchronized,,fashion,,before,,proceeding,,to,,the,,next,,step,,Implies,,a,,DSM,,machine,,laid,,out,,in,,a,,mesh,,format,,would,,match,,nicely,,to,,this,,problem,,26Computation,,vs.,,Or,,,use,,,it,,,to,,,create,,,really,,,cool,,,photo,,,slideshows,,,-,,,with,,,2D,,,and,,,3D,,,transitions,,,,animation,,,,and,,,your,,,choice,,,of,,,music,,,-,,,that,,,you,,,can,,,share,,,with,,,your,,,Facebook,,,friends,,,or,,,Google+,,,circles.,,,Or,,use,,it,,to,,find,,and,,download,,high-quality,,how-to,,PowerPoint,,ppt,,presentations,,with,,illustrated,,or,,animated,,slides,,that,,will,,teach,,you,,how,,to,,do,,something,,new,,,also,,for,,free.,,Or,,,use,,,it,,,to,,,find,,,and,,,download,,,high-quality,,,how-to,,,PowerPoint,,,ppt,,,presentations,,,with,,,illustrated,,,or,,,animated,,,slides,,,that,,,will,,,teach,,,you,,,how,,,to,,,do,,,something,,,new,,,,also,,,for,,,free.,,,to,,help,,us,,out,,Not,,so,,much,,of,,this,,help,,available,,for,,parallel,,machines,,,more,,of,,a,,burden,,on,,the,,programmer,,Performance,,can,,vary,,significantly,,from,,one,,application,,to,,another,,,e.g.,,supercomputing,,,DOE,,ASCI,,(Accelerated,,Strategic,,Computing,,Initiative),,program,,3Parallel,,ProcessingAdvantages,,Performance,,gains,,possible,,Can,,be,,relatively,,inexpensive,,today,,with,,commodity,,processors,,Disadvantages,,Software,,must,,now,,be,,changed,,radically,,to,,take,,advantage,,of,,the,,parallel,,machine,,Hardware,,challenges,,New,,types,,of,,overhead,,and,,organizational,,problems,,await,,the,,parallel,,machine,,4Types,,of,,ParallelismWeve,,already,,seen,,some,,sorts,,of,,parallelism,,lookahead,,and,,pipelining,,data,,and,,control,,parallelism,,vectorization,,concurrency,,interleaving,,physical,,subsystems,,(e.g.,,

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